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Gianfrancesco Guarnieri (Milan, Italy 1934 – San Paulo, Brazil 2006) Actor and playwright, he was born August 8, 1934 in Milan.  His family moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1936, where Guarnieri studied until 1953, when he moved to San Paolo.  In 1955 he founded the Paulista Theater for Students, together with Oduvaldo Viana Filho.  In the following year, this troupe joined the Teatro de Arena of San Paulo, founded and directed by José Renato.  From this partnership sprang the Teatro de Arena, renowned nationwide as “grand” by theater cognoscenti for its commitment to human interests.  Guarnieri started his playwrighting career in 1958 with They Don’t Wear Black Tie, which not only had a successful run, but garnered many awards (in 1981 a film adaptation won the Golden Lion in the Venice Film Festival).  Among his principal works are Arena Conta Zumbi (1965), in collaboration with Augusto Boal and Edu Lobo, Castro Alves Asks for Passage (1968), and A Scream Stopped in the Air (1973) which won Governor of the State Award for best Brazilian playwright.  His last work was The Secret Struggle of Maria of the Incarnation (2001).  With such a successful career, Guarnieri, one of the best actors in theater, film and television, took his final onstage bow in 2005.